#CircularTuesday: The circular economy in urban design for sustainability

The circular economy is rapidly dominating policy conversations as well as business strategy plans, and deservedly so – the demand for raw materials is predicted to double by 2050.

The linear economic model which the world had been running on until circular economy became mainstream, simply entailed raw materials being mined to manufacture components that are subsequently used and ultimately end as waste at the end of their lifecycle.

On the other hand, the circular economy rules out waste and pollution, keeps products and materials in use for as long as possible, and regenerates natural systems.

However, the circular economy goes beyond the 3Rs – Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. It is much more complex and presents multiple ramifications that involve paradigm shifts in how urban environments are designed since cities are resource consumption centers and significant producers of greenhouse gas emissions.

While circular economy is often discussed in relation to the architectural object through the lens of material recycling, design for disassembly, and material passports, the framework is most fully enacted at the neighborhood and city scale.

It is essential to analyze the urban structure as a whole since they are central to developing circular economy models and urban-scale projects exemplify the guiding principles of the circular economy, providing a glimpse into what a full-grown version of it might look like.

Circular economy strategies can be used in urban environments – from architecture and construction materials to energy production, waste management, and food production, as well as the processes and operations that govern these designs.

These can be enabling smart grid of solar panels, product-as-service model, co-working and co-living spaces, regenerative agricultural system, decentralized and sustainable energy, water and waste systems, retrieving energy and nutrients from wastewater, converting inorganic materials into new products or other resources, enabling a co-creation process involving citizens and end-users (one of the key steps in developing a circular economy) and a strong focus on self-sufficiency in terms of energy and food production, as well as an increased preoccupation with community involvement..

Cities need to accelerate efforts to fight climate change and set the groundwork for a circular economy, further enabling various climate mitigation opportunities.

Governments also need to understand that developing circular economy strategies requires creating a holistic understanding of how a city manages its resources what are its waste patterns and engaging private stakeholders in becoming partners in a new local economic framework.

This also entails analyzing local material flows and carbon emissions in relation to the local economy to identify the key industries where circular economy practices could be introduced.

From the above points, one can see that architects, urban designers and governments can take the initiative of executing the circular framework at the scale of urban development through interventions contribute to forging the circular economy vision and advancing knowledge in the area.

Decarbonizing buildings: An effective solution for mitigating the climate crisis in Africa

The building sector accounts for an astonishing 38% of carbon emissions globally.

These emissions come from various sources, with the first being direct emissions from the use of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas in buildings. On the other hand, there are indirect emissions from the use of electricity and commercial heat consumed in buildings.

Also, emissions come from the extraction, manufacturing, and transportation of construction materials, and also from building renovation.

For Africa to mitigate the deepening climate crisis, homes and buildings must be decarbonized and this can be achieved by removing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy use of buildings via building efficiency and integrating clean energy-powered appliances into buildings.

For buildings that are already using appliances that are being powered by fossil fuels, those appliances can be converted to already available technologies that are powered by renewable electricity.

However, this may be difficult to pull off in Africa because it is still far behind in the transition to carbon-free renewable electricity and innovation. Although decarbonizing buildings may require huge changes in structures and the way people live in them, it is not impossible.

The focus should be on ending emissions from old buildings and avoiding new emissions in order to improve energy efficiency and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

Existing houses need efficiency improvements while new housing requires scaling low-carbon supply chains around the world, from material supply through efficient design, construction, and operation in diverse global contexts.

We need to take a holistic approach and tackle each step of the building’s life cycle to reduce all of these emissions. This does not only have the potential to improve the living and working conditions of people but also save the building owners and occupants money because of their energy efficiency.

Finally, because land use and transportation emissions are linked, all housing innovations should focus on denser, multi-use communities that reduce the need to travel by car.

Beyond setting aggressive greenhouse gas emission reduction targets, the governments of the continent need to show clear leadership and take coordinated actions that are directed at eliminating key barriers and aligning the value propositions of all stakeholders.

Opibus unviels first-ever electric bus designed and developed in Africa

Opibus is in the news again and as expected, the EV developer that develops, designs, and manufactures electric vehicles is paving the way for zero-emission transportation in Africa.

The Swedish-Kenyan technology company headquartered in Kenya has unveiled, via a press release, its first electric transit bus designed and developed upon its own modular EV platform ahead of its commercial launch later this year.

Opibus believes it is one step closer to mass-producing electric buses for the pan-African market and electrifying public transit for the entire continent by the end of 2023.

Opibus had, before now, converted existing transit buses to electrified powertrains but this will be the first bus to sit upon the company’s proprietary, modular EV platform. The company sees its platform as the “secret sauce” that enables it to manufacture a bus that provides both the reliability and durability that the continent needs at a reasonable price.

According to Opibus, compared to the fossil fuel-powered buses dominating Africa’s roads, its new electric bus is expected to provide an 80% reduction in maintenance expenses. It also anticipates lesser operating costs (about 50% less) since electricity charges are significantly lower than the price of diesel in the continent.

Opibus believes that by developing and implementing its own in-house technologies into EV products, local and global contract manufacturers can be employed to assist in creating globally competitive products and rapidly accelerating them.

Speaking on the next steps, Dennis Wakaba, Project Coordinator for Public Transport, Opibus, said, “This first electric bus is set to be launched commercially mid this year. Following this, the platform will be tested at scale in commercial deployment of 10 buses during the second half of 2022. In doing so, we ensure that we gather valuable feedback to continue the development of the product for an optimized market fit. It feels great to be the first movers in this very exciting space.”

The first deployment of the new electric buses will begin in suburban areas around Nairobi, Kenya’s capital and the buses will be paired with a business model that will allow operators to save from the moment they get the buses. The business model includes the deployment of several AC and DC Opibus chargers. The DC Opibus chargers have the capacity to fully charge an electric bus in about an hour and a half.

With the combination of lower cost, optimum performance with swift EV torque, Opibus is optimistic that its electric bus will revolutionize the public transport sector in Africa in the nearest future.

Recall Opibus and Uber had announced a strategic partnership at the tail end of 2021 aimed at scaling up the use of electric motorcycles in Africa and deploying up to 3,000 electric motorcycles for drivers by 2022.

Uber and Opibus champion mass adoption of electric motorcycles across Africa

Uber and Opibus have announced a strategic partnership aimed at scaling up the use of electric motorcycles in Africa and deploying up to 3,000 electric motorcycles for drivers by 2022.

This is coming after Uber successfully ran its pilot program and its partnership with Opibus is to make the deployment of electric motorcycles across Africa seamless.

According to the agreement between both parties, Opibus will supply 3,000 electric motorcycles in 2022 to meet the demand from Uber’s drivers. This is expected to also scale up the operation of Opibus to other countries across the continent.

Opibus motorcycle is the first African electric motorcycle to be fully designed and tailored for the local use case. Its powerful frame and dual swappable battery packs which can be swapped provide a perfect product-market aimed at maximizing local content.

Drivers who use the platform can seamlessly deliver their services to customers with zero-carbon emission motorcycles. The hope is the partnership will lead to carbon reduction while at the same time creating a better environment in cities with less noise, no particle emissions, and lowering carbon emissions globally.

Opibus Co-Founder and Chief Sales Officer, Mikael Gånge, said there is increased demand for locally designed electric motorcycles in Africa.

He said, “By working with Uber we’ve now been able to prove the feasibility for large-scale deployment. Next year we’re scaling up our production to meet the market demand, both in Kenya and in the region.”

The motorcycle industry in Kenya is flourishing, with more than 1.6 million motorcycles registered in the country at a growth rate of 16,500 units on the average of imported motorcycles into the country monthly.

The industry is also the single largest employer in Kenya and is estimated to employ more than 1.2 million youth.

The partnership aligns with Uber’s business to make a switch to fully electric vehicles and become a zero-emission platform by 2040, a move that will push Africa’s technological status if achieved.

Generally, over 600 cities and over 65 countries have access to the Uber network, and it is currently available to sixteen cities in Sub-Saharan Africa namely Lagos, Abuja, Benin City, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Pretoria, Port Elizabeth, Nairobi, Mombasa, Kampala, Accra, Kumasi, and Dar es Salaam.

‍General Manager, Uber Sub-Saharan Africa, Frans Hiemstra, had this to say about the partnership, “We are doing our part to help transform mobility in the country by helping to reduce carbon emissions.

Uber is continuously looking for ways to improve the customer experience and we have a responsibility to invest in product innovations that are safe, reliable, durable, environmentally friendly, and have a sustainable impact on drivers and cities. This collaboration with Opibus will do just that.”

The huge number of ICE motorcycles in Kenya is causing high emissions. This has made the country reinforce its commitment to harnessing low-carbon investment opportunities, especially with the country’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the Paris Agreement.

Beyond emissions reduction, the transition to electric motorcycles will help drivers earn better income as there would be reduced maintenance and operating costs when using Opibus motorcycles as compared to traditional ICE motorcycles.

To incentivize transition, high import taxation and fuel prices are being explored, and to further smoothen the transition, Opibus motorcycles will be sold for the same price as fossil fuel-powered motorcycles.

Green buildings: A viable solution to urbanization?

According to data from the United Nations (UN), about 68% of the world’s population will live in cities by 2050.

Cities represent 3% of the world’s land surface and consume about 78% of energy while producing about 60% of greenhouse gas emissions.

It is for this reason that the UN advised countries to make cities more sustainable, habitable, healthy, inclusive, and resilient. How can cities achieve this? The answer is simple: green building!

A green building or sustainable building (according to some) puts into consideration energy use, water use, indoor environmental quality, building material, and effects on its site during the planning, designing, construction, and operations of buildings.

Beyond ensuring a building’s efficiency as regards sustainable material usage and energy and water consumption, contractors and builders prioritize proper design, operation, construction, and maintenance techniques to ensure that the natural environment is preserved and that pollution and its impact on human health and wildlife are reduced.

Green buildings may cost a leg and an arm upfront but they have proven to save money due to their lower operating costs over the lifespan of a building.

In addition to its operating cost-benefit, the sustainable building also provides comfort and increased productivity while improving the health of occupants by reducing pollution and landfill waste.

This is especially important because sustainable buildings have the potential to reduce the rate of respiratory disease, allergy, and asthma.

Because a great number of building materials and cleaning/maintenance products emit toxic gases, they have a detrimental impact on the health of occupants thereby affecting their productivity.

This is why sustainable buildings are a better option as a result of the improved air quality in them due to the construction materials and interior finish products which have zero or low emissions.

By their design also, they have adequate ventilation and filtration system which also adds to air quality.
Builders and contractors need to incorporate sustainable principles and an integrated design approach in their building plans while also developing a clear statement of the project’s vision, goals, design criteria, and priorities.

They need to select design and construction teams committed to the project vision while also ensuring that they have appropriate qualifications to implement an integrated system of sustainable building measures.

They also need to develop a project budget that covers green building measures, while seeking advice from a design professional with sustainable building experience.

It is important to note that sustainable building measures won’t achieve their aim unless they work as intended. That is why continuous testing and adjusting the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems to ensure that all equipment meets design criteria as well as monitoring operation and maintenance of equipment is crucial.

This will ensure building performance.

Building eco-friendly cities: A panacea for climate change adaptation

Climate change has necessitated a gradual shift from the use of fossil fuels to cleaner and renewable energy sources.

As people seek ways to adapt to the effects of climate change, it becomes even more important to ensure that cities are not only eco-friendly but also sustainable. This is because most cities consume a greater part of the energy that the world produces as a result of the increasing population.

As the human population increases in number and size, so does energy consumption; hence, the need to transform urban areas into eco-friendly cities that are self-sufficient in terms of energy and sustainable living.

Considering the effects of climate change on the environment, building resilient cities is a step in the right direction because not many cities in the world were originally developed with sustainability in mind;  To be sure, this isn’t an easy feat because sustainability goes beyond achieving set climate targets.

Having in mind that cities differ in terms of their needs, opportunities, and issues, it is important to note that there is no single environmental solution that can be applied to all cities across the world. But there is one factor that is common to cities irrespective of their issues and that factor is their source of energy and how they use it.

Generating electricity using sustainable resources

No doubt, when it comes to producing clean energy, many cities can hold their own. However, as more energy is consumed, there is a possibility that it would become less sustainable for them.

Turning to other sources of clean energy like solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal), wind, biogas, geothermal, biomass, low-impact hydroelectricity, etc., does not only make them environmentally friendly cities but ensures the energy generated and used in running them is inexhaustible.

Strict building codes that favor green technology

Activities that take place in buildings are, more often than not, energy-consuming and result in huge carbon emissions which affect cities.

This can be tackled by creating eco-friendly cities with efficient buildings and using energy-efficient lighting and heating systems. This is more cost-effective and productive.

For example, some places in Singapore have taken significant steps in promoting eco-consciousness like painting roofs white and planting trees can reduce city temperatures while fitting smart street lights can reduce emissions thereby reducing city energy consumption significantly.

Investment in greener public transportation

Vehicles are a major contributor to carbon emissions and this is made worse when and where there is a traffic jam due to the concentration of the gas. While there are moves to phase out fossil fuel-powered vehicles and adopt electric vehicles (EVs), there are other solutions to reducing emissions.

Some eco-friendly cities encourage commuting by cycling, car-sharing clubs where people join the club and use a car only when they need it, high-quality bus and underground rail systems, as well as areas with low emissions where only electric vehicles are allowed.

Low consumption of carbon-intensive products

Carbon footprints are everywhere including what we eat and the products and services we purchase. Meat and other products from animals contribute to over half of food-related greenhouse gas emissions. Eco-friendly cities can remain green by encouraging the purchase of locally sourced products with lower emissions.

Electric vehicles (EVs) and the future of e-mobility in Africa

Electric vehicles, EVs for short, are vehicles that are either partially or fully powered by electricity. Their main attraction is because they are very environmentally friendly because they use little or no fossil fuels (petrol or diesel). Even more, electric vehicles are cheaper to run.

As talks of climate change continue to dominate conversations globally, continents of the world have begun adopting electric vehicles. Though not unknown in Africa, electric-powered vehicles remains a rarity in many African countries.

According to UNEP, South Africa, Seychelles, Rwanda, Mauritius, and North African countries are front leaders in the EV market, with cleantech startups taking the forefront and pushing e-mobility. However, despite the perceived growth of electric vehicles in Africa, the uptake has not been phenomenal.

In fact, you’re a lot more likely to count one million vehicles before you find one EV. That’s how rare they are in Africa. To put this into context, a country like South Africa only has about 1,000 electric vehicles out of an estimated 12 million vehicles that ply its roads. This is very poor considering South Africa takes the spot as the largest EV market on the continent.

How then can Africa promote EV adoption? Is there any hope for e-mobility in Africa now and in the future? No doubt, e-mobility has great potentials in Africa but its growth and adoption are being hindered by a number of factors.

These factors, if tackled, will increase the continent’s chances of mitigating climate change, providing cheap transportation, and reducing pollution.

High purchasing cost

This is one of the major factors that hinder the adoption of EVs because of low purchasing power and the absence of vehicle financing options.

Not many people in Africa can afford an upfront payment for electric vehicles and even if there were loan options, it would take the average African the whole of their life to pay back due to the high cost of owning one.

Second-hand vehicles

Africa has become a dump yard for used vehicles. Worse still, these used vehicles have internal combustion engines.

This has made the adoption of electric vehicles almost impossible because the second-hand market is huge. As a matter of fact, about 40% of the global exports of used vehicles go to Africa — with Nigeria, Kenya, and Ethiopia leading the pack (approx. 80–90% imports).

No supportive policies

When it comes to the adoption of electric vehicles, the government should be a key driver. This is because policies and economic stimuli are required to ensure a rapid and seamless transition to electric vehicles.

Formulating and implementing policies that encourage the manufacturing of EVs by subsidization, reducing taxation on them, and ensuring adherence to their adoption will definitely yield tangible results and force e-mobility markets to embrace electric vehicles. Currently, only Cape Verde has made efforts to slowly get rid of internal combustion vehicles.

Insufficient energy supply and charging infrastructure

African countries have overburdened electricity systems, with some of them experiencing constant blackouts. An example is Nigeria with chronic power shortages and insufficient charging infrastructure. These hinder the use of electric vehicles because, after purchase, there’s no place to charge.

However, things are not all that gloomy for a country like South Africa as it had a high global ranking — 5th as a matter of fact — in the ratio of public electric vehicle (EV) chargers it had compared to available electric vehicles in 2020.

Way forward

There is a silver lining for Africa in the quest for driving EV adoption. This is evident in the roles that companies and startups are playing — building electric vehicles and driving their adoption within the continent.

Considering the erratic power supply in Africa, smart grids that are fed on renewable energy will facilitate the transition to EVs, mitigate emissions and enable countries to meet their climate targets.

It is now left for African countries to initiate climate programs, local production of EV vehicles, and emission reduction targets that will speed up the phase-out of internal combustion vehicles and lead to increased use in electric vehicles.

Ampersand secures $9m for the expansion of its electric motorcycles

Ampersand, Kenya’s first electric motorcycle company, has secured $9million from the US International Development Finance Corporation (DFC) to expand its operations in Rwanda and Kenya.

This loan is a part of DFC’s portfolio for the Impact and Innovation (PI²) initiative and contributes to DFC’s commitment to the US Energy Compact and its target to address climate change with one-third of its investments by 2023.

DFC’s facility expands on Ampersand’s $4 million Series A investment which closed earlier in 2021 and was backed by Ecosystem Integrity Fund (EIF), a Silicon Valley investor, and TotalEnergies.

The deal represents DFC’s first loan for electric mobility and signifies increasing investor confidence in Africa’s rising e-mobility sector. The company gathers and finances electric motorcycles known as emotos or e-bodas that cost less to buy and operate and perform better than 5 million petrol motorcycle taxis in use across East Africa, all with up to 83% fewer carbon emissions.

DFC’s Chief Climate Officer, Jake Levine, stated that the company is happy to help Ampersand in their critical and creative initiative to bring e-mobility and electric bikes to Rwanda and Kenya.

According to him, DFC is committed to making significant investments in developing countries that will help communities progress and grow while also building resilience and prosperity in preparation for a clean energy future.

This investment, as well as Ampersand’s incredible market growth, represents a significant step in that direction. The loan will enable Ampersand to scale up the number of electric motorcycles in Rwanda and Kenya by the end of 2022.

Founder and CEO of Ampersand, Josh Whale, had this to say about DFC’s investment, “We’re thrilled to have DFC on board with this historic investment, which is building momentum to electrify all of East Africa’s 5 million motorcycle taxis by 2030. DFC’s support underlines the viability and investability of electric two-wheelers for mass-market customers in the Global South, and the importance of this market to reaching net zero.”

He further commented, on the eve of COP26 in Glasgow, that Ampersand believes bolder, fast-moving, and innovative funds like PI² are urgently needed.

About Ampersand

Ampersand is the first and leading integrated electric motorcycle and transport energy solution in Africa with its headquarter in Kigali, Rwanda.

Launched in May 2019, Ampersand’s team has performed over 50,000 battery swaps, powering its fleet of 56 drivers for 2 million kilometers.

The company offers East Africa’s five million taxi motorcyclists a commercial electric motorcycle that is cheaper, provides a better overall user experience and requires minimal customer behavior change.

Ampersand’s main business is the network of battery swap stations and fleet of batteries the company builds and operates. This system allows drivers to swap batteries faster than refilling a petrol tank and shields vehicle buyers from the high upfront cost of a lithium battery pack.

Ampersand secured early-stage seed funding from USAID’s Development Innovation Ventures (DIV), Rwanda’s Green Fund, and the UK Government’s Frontier Technology Livestreaming initiative, and others, and is now awaiting DFC’s investment to develop its business in the region.

Opibus raises $7.5 million at COP26 to expand its electric vehicles market

As countries and corporate leaders make pledges to mitigate climate change during the course of COP26, innovators of climate-focused solutions are in search of funding to help them launch or expand their operations. Opibus is one such organization.

The firm has announced a $7.5 million funding which it secured to expand its operations in East Africa.

Founded in 2017, Opibus focuses on all-electric conversion kits for fleet vehicles such as light trucks, public transport, and buses, as well as electric motorcycles and energy systems. The startup is based in Sweden and Kenya, Nairobi.

[bctt tweet=”The funding is structured at $5 million in equity and $7.5 million in additional grants. This round was led by At One Ventures, a Silicon Valley fund, backed by Factor (e) Ventures, funds managed by former executives of Google and Uber, the driver-car app.” username=”climateactionaf”]

Armed with the new capital, Opibus hopes to begin the mass production of its electric vehicles in 2022. The company collects electric bikes that can replace conventional motorcycles, as well as completely electric off-road vehicles and buses that have been converted to entirely electric vehicles.

Ampersand, an American business based in Kigali, Rwanda, created integrable batteries for these electric motorcycles.

By providing charging and energy solutions, Opibus will contribute to the creation of a full environment that is friendly to electric mobility. The company’s goal, according to the firm, is to create a sustainable ecosystem for mass transportation in Africa.

Filip Gardler, CEO and co-founder of Opibus, stated that the company’s targets and goals may appear ambitious, but it is a mission that is more vital than ever. Opibus owe a duty to future generations as well as the entire planet.

The company now has customers in six African countries and wants to expand into new areas in the coming years. Because, according to Filip, Africa is one of the world’s fastest-growing transportation industries, with a potential worth $10 billion by 2030 that is yet mostly unexplored.

Electric vehicles: A green path toward sustainability

Fossil fuel-powered vehicles contribute greatly to air pollution, this is because they emit tons of greenhouse gas, especially secondhand and very old cars. An estimated 80 to 90 percent of cars in Africa- particularly in Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Kenya- are used vehicles.

This raises a concern as some African leaders have pledged towards achieving a net-zero come 2050, some by 2070, and so forth. With the global transportation sector accounting for 90% of primary oil demand and is responsible for 22% of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, one might wonder if these goals are achievable.

The majority of these nations have little to no ambition of investing or introducing electric vehicles which could be a huge step towards sustainability.

Africa’s electric vehicle market has the capacity to grow. Statistics show that the Middle-East and African electric vehicle market is expected to reach USD 84 million by 2026.

In 2020, it was valued at USD 35 million. Apart from reducing carbon emissions, the adoption of electric vehicles in Africa will bring huge economic advantages. To that end, governments and stakeholders might as well go all in and invest in electric vehicles and their attendant infrastructure.

Since electric vehicles are a strong step towards reducing greenhouse gas and making net-zero attainable, the narrative should be around finding ways to encourage a transition to cleaner, healthier electric vehicles.

In South Africa, electric vehicles are already in use. Going by the figures of how many EVs are on the road, it’s nothing to be celebrated. For example, only 1000 out of more than 12 million vehicles on the road are electric vehicles.

While this is a minute step in the right direction for South Africa, other countries in Sub-Sahara Africa can follow suit. Kenya, on its part, recently got a grant to invest in electric buses.

There is no denying the fact that to transition to electric vehicles, there will be challenges and it will take time.

Electric vehicles: Reality or fantasy?

There are obstacles, despite the fact that EVs are practical alternatives to fossil fuel-powered vehicles. In reality, most African countries seem unready for electric vehicles due to low demand.

Some concerns may stem from a lack of trust in the technology as it is new but over time and constant use will create trust in the heart of people.

Another concern is the lack of long-term power supply in most African countries. In many parts of Nigeria, for example, a continuous power supply for more than 12 hours is a cause for celebration.

In Ghana, 87% of households have access to the grid but just 42% of those connections have access to reliable power. Despite this, it is three times the rate of well-functioning connections in Guinea which is 12 percent.

Households and businesses where electricity is in high demand suffer from the unreliable power supply. Introducing electric vehicles may cause concern and raise questions. Electric vehicles may be viable if Africa’s weak power grid is rectified.

Electric vehicles would demand a lot of electricity and is no guarantee that this electricity will come from renewable sources like solar and wind which many households and businesses do not have access to.

Furthermore, constructing a charging station will require a large piece of land, however, this may be overcome. There is always room; the primary question is whether or not leaders are ready to invest. It is feasible if the same energy used to build fossil fuel stations is used to build charging stations for electric vehicles.

Also, while electric vehicles may succeed if corruption is not a hindrance, countries that rely on fossil fuels for economic growth may be wary of the concept.

Just as fossil fuels automobiles depend on fuel stations to function, so also electric vehicles depend on charging facilities to function and they are scarce; some African countries lack even a single charge station, implying that green vehicles are not considered. If there are more charging stations, electric vehicles may be viable.

Rather than constructing more fossil fuel stations, funds should be directed into the construction of charging stations and plans for ensuring a steady power supply.

Many would argue that the cost of electric vehicles will rise to twice the cost of fossil fuel vehicles; but, in order to encourage green vehicle adoption, the government should subsidize them, lower or eliminate VAT on them entirely, making them more affordable.

Exploring electric vehicles is a step towards achieving some African nations’ net-zero ambition, taking old vehicles out the road will contribute significantly to reducing air pollution.

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